The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with climate change create an environment of conflict in the large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management, leading to severe environmental, social, and economic problems.
The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management, leading to severe environmental, social, and economic problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration.
Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. This project provided the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land-use change on water resources in the BSB.
Map of nitrate leaching from the bottom of the root zone. The image mostly reflects nitrate leaching from the organic constituent of the soil and underestimates the leaching of nitrogen due to excess fertilizer application and application of manure.